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  1. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast Cancer and HRT: collaborative reanalysis of data from 51 epidemiological studies of 52,705 women with breast cancer and 108,411 women without breast cancer. Lancet 1997; 350: 1047-1059

  2. Dale E, Vessey M P, Hawkins M M, et al. Risk of venous thromboembolism in users of hormone replacement therapy. Lancet 1996; 348:977-80

  3. Sturdee D W, Ulrich L G, Barlow D H, Wells M, et al. The endometrial response to sequential and continuous combined oestrogen-progestogen replacement therapy. Br J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 107: 1392-1400

  4. Mosca L, Collins P, Herrington D M, et al. Hormone replacement therapy and cardiovascular disease : a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2001; 104:499-503.

  5. Nachtigall LB, Lagrega L, Nachtigall LE. The effect of isoflavones derived from red clover on vasomotor symptoms and endometrial thickness. Proceedings 81st Annual Meeting US Endocrine Society 1999; June 1999, San Diego.

  6. Tice JA, Ettinger B, Ensrud K et al. Phytoestrogen supplements for the treatment of hot flashes: The isoflavone clover extract (ICE) study. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003; 290:207-214.

  7. Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. Principal results for the Women's Health Initiative Randomized controlled trial JAMA 2002;288:321-333

  8. Hulley S,Grady D,Bush T, et al. Randomised trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. JAMA 1998;280:605-613.

  9. Million Women Study Collaborators. Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet 2003; 362: 419-427

  10. Managing the menopause. British Menopause Society Council consensus statement on hormone replacement therapy. Journal of the British Menopause Society 2003; Vol.9, No.3: 129-131

  11. Loprinzi CL, Kugler JW, Sloan JA et al. Venlafaxine in management of hot flashes in survivors of breast cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2000; 356:2059-2063.

  12. Guttuso T Jr, Kurlan R, McDermott MP et al. Gabapentin's effects on hot flashes in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2003; 101:337-345.

  13. Bisphosphonates for osteoporosis. Drug Ther Bull 2001; 39:68-72.

  14. Ettinger B, Black DM, Mitlak BH, et al. Reduction of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene: results from a 3-year randomized clinical trial. JAMA 1999; 282:637-645.

  15. Cummings SR, Eckert S, Krueger KA, et al. The effect of raloxifene on risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. JAMA 1999; 261:2189-2197.

  16. Neer RM, Arnaud CD, Zanchetta JR, et al. Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 2001; 344:1434-1441.

  17. Rodriguez-Martinez MA, Garcia-Cohen EC. Role of Calcium++ and vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Pharmacol Ther 2002; 93:37-49.

  18. Loprinzi CL, Michalak JC, Quella SK, et al. Megestrol acetate for the prevention of hot flashes. N.Engl J Med 1994; 331:347-352.

  19. Leonetti H, Longo S, Anasti JN. Transdermal progesterone cream for vasomotor symptoms and postmenopausal bone loss. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 94:225-228.

  20. Wren BG, Champion SM, Willetts K et al. Transdermal progesterone and its effect on vasomotor symptoms, blood lipid levels, bone metabolic markers, moods and quality of life for postmenopausal women. Menopause 2003; 10:13-18.

  21. Cushman M, Kuller L, Prentice R. et al, for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators. Estrogen plus progestin and risk of venous thrombosis. JAMA 2004;292:1573-1580.

  22. Lowe GD, Upton MN, Rumley A et al. Different effects of oral and transdermal hormone replacement therapies on factor IX, APC resistance, t-PA, PAI and C-reactive protein - a cross-sectional population survey. Thromb Haemost 2001;86:550-556.

  23. Ojoo J, Kastelik J, Morice A. The respiratory system and the menopause. Journal of the British Menopause Society 2001; Vol.7, No.4:168-173.

  24. Bollapragada S, Panigrahy R, Mander T. Hormone replacement therapy and fibroids. Journal of the British Menopause Society 2002; Vol.8, No.4:157-158.

  25. Fraser W. Pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of transplant-associated osteoporosis. Journal of the British Menopause Society 2001; Vol.7, No.1:9-14.

  26. Eaton S, Webster J, Allahabadia A. Thyroid disease and the menopausal woman. Journal of the British Menopause Society 2003; Vol.9, No.2:82-84.

  27. Parker S. Follicle stimulating hormone: facts and fallacies. Journal of the British Menopause Society 2004; Vol.10, No.4:166-168.

  28. N.Biglia, R.Torta, R.Roagna, F Maggiorotto, F. Cacciari, R.Ponzone, F. Kubatzki, P.Sismondi.
    Evaluation of low-dose venlafaxine hydrochloride for the therapy of hot flushes in breast cancer survivors. Maturitas. Volume 52, issue1, pages 78-85.Sept 2005.

  29. C.Kaari, M.A.Haidar, J.M.S.Junior et al.
    Randomized clinical trial comparing conjugated equine estrogens and isoflavones in postmenopausal women: a pilot study. Maturitas. Volume 53, issue 1, pages 49-58. January 2006.

  30. Myocardial infarction risk and hormone replacement: Differences between products. Vries, S.E.Bromley, R.D.T.Farmer. Maturitas. Volume 53, Issue 3, pages 343-350.

  31. Risk of stroke and hormone replacement therapy. Cairu Li, Gunnar Engstrom, Bo Hedblad et al. Maturitas Vol 54, Issue 1, April 2006, pages 11-18.

  32. A critique of Women's Health Initiative Studies (2002-2006). Clark J Nuclear Receptor Signaling (2006) 4, e023.

  33. Prevalence of premature ovarian failure in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Human Reproduction. doi:10.1093/humanrep/del382.

  34. Bardia A, Hartmann LC, Vachon CM, Vierkant RA, Wang AH, Olson JE, Sellers TA, Cerhan JR. Recreational physical activity and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer based on hormone receptor status. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Dec 11; 166(22):2478-83.

  35. Lyytinen H, Pukkala E, Ylikorkala O. Breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women using estrogen-only therapy. Obstet Gynecol 2006 Dec; 108(6):1354-60.

  36. Effects of low-dose continuous combined hormone replacement therapy on glucose homeostasis and markers of cardiovascular risk in women with type 2 diabetes. Kernohan AF, Sattar N, Hilditch T, Cleland SJ, Small M, Lumsden MA, Connell JM, Petrie JR. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Jan;66(1):27-34.

  37. Tibolone therapy in breast cancer survivors: A retrospective study. Goutzioulis M, Vavilis D, Agorastos T, Konstantinidis T, Pantazis K, Goutzioulis A, Goulis DG, Makedos G, Bontis JN. J obstet Gynaecol Res. 2007 Feb;33(1):68-73.

  38. Isoflavone treatment for acute menopausal symptoms. Cheng G, Wilczek B, Warner M, Gustafsson JA, Landgren BM. Menopause. 2007 Feb 6 (epublication)

  39. Canonico M, Oger E, Plu-Bureau G et al. Hormone therapy and venous thromboembolism among postmenopausal women: impact of the route of estrogen administration and progestogens: the ESTHER study. Circulation 2007 Feb 20;115(7):840-5.

  40. Breast cancer incidence and hormone replacement therapy: Results from the MISSION study, prospective phase. Espie M, Daures JP, Chevallier T, Mares P, Micheletti MC, de Reilhac P. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007 Jul;23(7):391-7.)

  41. Body composition during treatment with conjugated estrogens with and without medroxyprogesterone acetate: analysis of the women's Health, Osteoporosis, Progestin, Estrogen (HOPE) trial. Ian H Thorneycroft, Robert Lindsay, James Pickar. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. August 2007. Volume 197;Issue 2:137

  42. Interactions between intakes of alcohol and postmenopausal hormones on risk of breast cancer. Nielson NR, Gronbaek M. Int J Cancer 2007 Oct 26; [Epub ahead of print]

  43. Ultra low-dose hormone replacement therapy and bone protection in postmenopausal women. Gambacciani M, Cappagli B, Ciaponi M, Pepe A, Vacca F, Genazzani AR Maturitas. 2007 Dec 1 [Epub ahead of print]

  44. Estrogen May Be Neuroprotective After All. Caroline Helwick, Laurie Barclay, Brande Niole Martin. Society of Nuclear Medicine 2008 Annual Meeting: Abstract 973. Presented June 16, 2008.

  45. The effects of tibolone in older postmenopausal women. Cummings SR, Ettinger B, Delmas PD, et al. for the LIFT Trial investigators. N Engl J Med 2008;359:697-708

  46. Hormone Therapy and the Risk of Breast Cancer in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers. Eisen A, Lubinski J, Gronwald J et al. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, doi:10.1093/jnci/djn313

  47. Greendale GA, Huang MH, Wight RG, et al. Effects of the menopause transition and hormone use on cognitive performance in midlife women. Neurology 2009;72:1850'7. Published May 26, 2009.

  48. Hormone Therapy and Ovarian cancer. Lina Steinrud Morch, Ellen Lokkegaard et al. JAMA Vol 302, No 3, July 15, 2009.

  49. Menopausal hormone therapy and new-onset diabetes in the French Etude Epidemiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Generale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) Lauzon-Guillain B, Fournier A. et al. Diabetologia 2009 Jul 23 [Epub ahead of print].

  50. Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: a randomized trial. Geller SE, Shulman Lp et al. Menopause 2009 Jul 15. [Epub ahead of print].

  51. Chlebowski RT, Schwartz AG, Wakelee H, et al for the Women's Health Investigators. Oestrogen plus progestin and lung cancer in postmenopausal women (Women's Health Initiative trial): a post-hoc analysis of a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 20 September 2009. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61526-9

  52. Hormone therapy and intraocular pressure in nonglaucomatous eyes Tint, Naing L. MBChB, MRCOphth; Alexander, Philip MBBS, MRCOphth; Tint, Khin M. MBBS, FRCS; Vasileiadis, George T. MD, MSc; Yeung, Aaron M. MBChB, MRCOphth; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto MD, PhD, FRCS. Menopause, epublished ahead of print January 2010.

  53. Salpeter SR, Cheng J, Thabane L, et al. Bayesian meta-analysis of hormone therapy and mortality in younger postmenopausal women. Am J Med. 2009 Nov;122(11):1016-1022.e1. (Review)

  54. Gabapentin vs. low-dose transdermal estradiol for treating post-menopausal women with moderate to very severe hot flushes; Aguirre W, Chedraui P, Mendoza J, Ruilova I; Gynecological Endocrinology (Jan 2010)

  55. Matthews KA, Crawford SL, Chae CU, et al. Are changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors in midlife women due to chronological aging or to the menopausal transition? J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;54:2366-73. Published December 15, 2009.

  56. Bechlioulis A, Kalantaridou SN, Naka KK, et al. Endothelial function, but not carotid intima-media thickness, is affected early in menopause and is associated with severity of hot flushes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010 Jan 15. Epub ahead of print.

  57. Gambacciani M, Pepe A. Vasomotor symptoms and cardiovascular risk. Climacteric 2009;12(Suppl 1):32-5.

  58. Hormone replacement therapy and the risk of venous thromboembolism: population-based study; Renoux C, Dell'aniello S, Suissa S; Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (Mar 2010)

  59. Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Subsequent Risk of Specific Invasive Breast Cancer Subtypes in the California Teachers Study. Tanmai Saxena, Eunjung Lee, Katherine D Henderson et al. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

  60. Physical activity and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. Eliassen AH, Hankinson SE, Rosner B, Holmes MD, Willett WC. Arch Int Med 2010 Oct 25;170(19):1758-64

  61. Ragaz J, et al. Dual estrogen effects on breast cancer: endogenous estrogen stimulates, exogenous estrogen protects. Further investigation of estrogen chemoprevention is warranted. Presented at the 2010 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, abstract number 1410

  62. Ingelsson E, Lundholm C, Johansson ALV and Altman D. Hysterectomy and risk of cardiovascular disease: a population based cohort study. Eur Heart J 2010; DOI:10. 1093/eurheartj/ehq477. Available at

  63. De P, Neutel Cl, Olivotto I, Morrison H. Breast cancer incidence and hormone replacement therapy in Canada. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010;102:1489-95.

  64. The Timing Hypothesis remains a valid explanation of differential cardioprotective effects of menopausal hormone treatment; Choi SD, Steinberg EM, Lee HH, Naftolin F; Menopause 18 (2), 230-6 (Feb 2011)

  65. Use of Gabapentin for the Management of Natural or Surgical Menopausal Hot Flashes; Hayes LP, Carroll DG, Kelley KW; Annals of Pharmacotherapy (Feb 2011)

  66. Duration of Menopausal Hot Flushes and Associated Risk FactorsFreeman, Ellen W. PhD; Sammel, Mary D. ScD; Lin, Hui MS; Liu, Ziyue PhD; Gracia, Clarisa R. MD
    Obstetrics &: Gynecology: May 2011 - Volume 117 - Issue 5 - pp 1095-1104

  67. Age-specific Effects of Hormone Therapy Use on Overall Mortality and Ischaemic Heart Disease Mortality Among Women in the California Teachers Study. Stram D O, Liu Y, Henderson K D et al. Menopause 2011;18(3):253-261.

  68. Hormone Therapy and Recurrence of Venous Thromboembolism Among Postmenopausal Women
    Olié, Valérie, MSc; Plu-Bureau, Geneviéve, MD; Conard, Jacqueline, PhD; Horellou, Marie-Héléne, MD; Canonico, Marianne, PhD; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves, MD Menopause. 2011;18(5):488-493.

  69. Bowring CE, Francis RM. National Osteoporosis Society's Position Statement on hormone replacement therapy in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Menopause International 2011; 17: 63-65.

  70. Nadkarni S et al. Activation of the annexin A1 pathway underlies the protective effects exerted by estrogen in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. ATVB 2011 [epub ahead of print]

  71. Pokoradi AJ, Iversen L, Hannaford PC. Factors Associated With Age of Onset and Type of Menopause in a Cohort of UK Women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;205:34.e1-13

  72. Hip Hip Fracture in Postmenopausal Women After Cessation of Hormone Therapy
    Results From a Prospective Study in a Large Health Management Organization
    Karim, Roksana MBBS, PhD; Dell, Richard M. MD; Greene, Denise F. RNP, MS; Mack, Wendy J. PhD; Gallagher, J. Christopher MD; Hodis, Howard N. MD Menopause. 2011;18(11):1172-1177.

  73. Acupuncture for Hot Flushes in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women
    Dong Il Kim; Jae Cheol Jeong; Kun Hyung Kim; et al. Acupunct Med. 2011;29(4):249-256. Menopause. 2011;18(11):1172-1177.

  74. Effect of yoga on menopausal symptoms. Joshi S, Khandwe R, Bapat D et al. Menopause International 2011; 17:78-81. Menopause. 2011;18(11):1172-1177.

  75. Yoga decreases insomnia in postmenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial Afonso, R Hachul H, Kozasa E, et al. Menopause, October 30, 2011.

  76. Conjugated equine oestrogen and breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy:
    extended follow-up of the Women's Health Initiative randomised placebo-controlled trial.
    Garnet L Anderson, Rowan T Chlebowski, Aaron K Aragaki, et al.
    Published Online March 7, 2012 DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70075-X

  77. Discontinuation of hormone replacement therapy after myocardial infarction and short term risk of adverse cardiovascular events: nationwide cohort study. Bretler Ditte-Marie, et al. BMJ 2012;344:e1802

  78. Early menopause and risk of osteoporosis, fracture and mortality: a 34 year prospective observational study in 390 women. Svejme O, Ahlborg H, Nilsson J-A and Karlsson M. 2012. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Early View Online April 25th 2012.

  79. A decade after the Women's Health Initiative'the experts do agree. Stuenkel C, Gass M, Manson J et al. Fertility and Sterility. Vol 98, No 2, August 2012

  80. Wellons M, Ouyang P, Schreiner PJ, et al. Early menopause predicts future coronary heart disease and stroke: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Menopause 2012; DOI:10.1097/gmc.0b013c3182517bd0. Available at:

  81. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular events in recently postmenopausal women: randomized trial. Schierbeck L L, Rejnmark L, Tofteng C L, et al. BMJ 2012;345:e6409

  82. Age at Menopause and Incident Heart Failure, The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
    Imo A. Ebong, MD, MS, Karol E. Watson, MD, PhD, David C. Goff Jr, MD, PhD, David A. Bluemke, MD, PhD, Preethi Srikanthan, MD, MS, Tamara Horwich, MD MS, Alain G. Bertoni, MD, MPH. Menopause. 2014;21(6):585-591.

  83. Soda consumption and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study; Fung T, Arasaratnam M, Grodstein F, Katz J, Rosner B, Willett W, Feskanich D; American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Aug 2014)

  84. Obrien KM, Fei C, Sandler CP, et al. Hormone therapy and young-onset breast cancer. Am J Epidemol 2015;181:799-807.

  85. Mikkola TS, Tuomikoski P, Lyytinen H, et al. Increased cardiovascualar mortality risk in women discontinuing postmenopausal hormone therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015;100:4588-94

  86. Ee C, Xue C, Chondros P etal. Acupuncture for Menopausal Hot Flashes. Ann Int Med. 2 February 2016, 164(3):146-154

  87. Vascular effects of Early versus Late Postmenopausal Treatment with Estradiol. Hodis H et al. N Engl J med 2016;374:1221-1231

  88. Mikkola TS, Tuomikoski P, Lyytinen H, et al. Increased cardiovascular mortality risk in women discontinuing postmenopausal hormone therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015;100:4588-94

  89. Bone loss and wrist fractures after withdrawal of hormone therapy: The 15 year follow-up of the OSTPRE cohort. Saarelainen J et al. Maturitas 2016;85:49-55

  90. Reducing inappropriate FSH testing. Williams J at al. Post Reproductive Health published online 7th March 2016

  91. Sedentary Lifestyle in Middle-aged Women Is Associated With Severe Menopausal Symptoms and Obesity. Blumel JE, Fica J, Chedraui P et al. Menopause. 2016;23(5):488-493

  92. Mikkola TS, Savolainen-Peltonen H, Tuomikoski P et al. Reduced risk of breast cancer mortality in women using postmenopausal hormone therapy: a Finnish nationwide comparative study. Menopause 2016 July 25 (Epub ahead of print)

  93. Henderson VW, St John JA, Hodis HN et al. Cognitive effects of estradiol after menopause: A randomized trial of the timing hypothesis. Neurology, 2016 Aug 16;87(7):699-708

  94. Ee C, Xue C, Chondros P et al. Acupuncture for Menopausal Hot Flashes: A Randomized Trial. Ann Intern Med, 2016 Feb 2;164(3):146-54

  95. Association of Age at Onset of Menopause and Time Since onset of Menopause With Cardiovascular Outcomes, Intermediate Vascular Traits, and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Muka T et al. JAMA Cardiol 2016

  96. Use of Systemic Hormone Therapy in BRCA Mutation Carriers. Domchek S, Kaunitz A M. Menopause 2016;23(9):1026-1027

  97. Efficacy of menopausal hormone therapy on sleep quality: systematic review and meta-analysis. Cintron D, Lipford M, Larrea-Mantilla L et al. Endocrine, 2016

  98. Gordon JL, Rubinow DR, Eisenlohr-Moul TA, et al. Efficacy of Transdermal Estradiol and Micronized Progesterone in the Prevention of Depressive Symptoms in the Menopause Transition - A Randomized Clinical Trial JAMA Psychiatry. Published online January 10 2018

  99. Pinkerton JA, Manson JA. Vaginal Estrogen in the Treatment of Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause and Risk of Endometrial Cancer. Menopause. 2017;24(12):1329-1332

  100. Use of hormone replacement therapy and risk of venous thromboembolism: nested case-control studies using the QResearch and CPRD databases. Yana Vinogradova et al. BMJ 2019;364:bmj.k4810

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